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Country Overview

At a Glance

Taking a Closer Look

Geography and Climate

Turkey is situated at the junction of Europe and Asia. The European part of the country is called Thrace (Trakya) and the Asian part is named Anatolia (Anadolu). The location on two continents has been a central feature of the Turkish history, culture and politics. The country shares borders with Greece and Bulgaria to the northwest, with Georgia and Armenia, and Iran to the east, Iraq and Syria to the south. The Black Sea to the north, the Aegean Sea to the west, and the Mediterranean Sea to the south are connected by the Bosphorus, the Sea of Marmara and the Dardanelles, a water way known as the Turkish Straits. The climate of coastal regions shows features of a transition between a Mediterranean and Black Sea climate. Summers tend to be hot and dry except the Black Sea coast. While spring and fall are warm and temperate, winters are cold, but the number of snowy days is few. The inner land is more snowy and cold in winter. The coldest months are January and February and hottest July and August.

History and Government

The Republic of Turkey was established in 1923. The new Republic looked to the West for industrialization and the establishment of a secular political system under the guidance of the new Republic’s first President Mustafa Kemal Atatürk whose reforms constituted the framework for the development of the modern Turkish Republic. Turkey has enjoyed multi-party politics since 1946. Turkey is a unitary parliamentary republic. The Grand National Assembly has 550 members elected for four years term, by secret ballot. The executive branch is the Government, headed by the Prime Minister. The President is elected by the Parliament for a four years term. The Prime Minister, who is appointed by the President, nominates the other members of the cabinet, which is approved by the President, and is subject to a parliamentary vote of confidence. The judiciary is independent of both the legislature and the executive. The legal system is largely based on continental European models. A Constitutional Court is also entitled to cancel legislation passed by the Parliament. It can cancel those laws, or parts of them, which it decides to be incompatible with the Constitution. 6 Since 2002, Justice and Development Party (AKP) has been the government. They have developed goals for 2023, which are:

The population of Turkey

According to the Population Services Law No. 5490 acted in 2006, new population registration system, which will be the main data source of population censuses, was established in the country. The results of the census states that the population is approximately 75.627.3842 as of 31.12.2012. Proportion of population living in cities is 77.3% The number of people living in Istanbul is 13.854.740. Most populated provinces are Ankara, Izmir, Bursa and Adana. Population size of Bayburt as the least populated province in Turkey is 75.797.  The half of population is below age 30.1 in Turkey. The median age of the population in Turkey is 30,1. While the median age is 29,5 for males, it is 30,6 for females. Proportion of the population at ages between 15 and 64 is 67.6 %. Persons at 15-64 age groups which are the working ages constitute 67,6 % of the total population. Proportion of population of Turkey for age group 0-14 is 24, 9 % and it is 7,5% for age group 65 and over 6.


Turkey is one of the fastest growing economy in the world and is the member of the G20 with its growing rate of % 4.0 for 2013. It is one of the twelve countries in The Big Emerging Market (BEM).

By 2014-04-11 Moody’s Turkey Rating is Baa3 (Negative). However, according to the World Bank data for 2010, 16.9% of the population is below the poverty line and Turkey’s Human Development Index value is 0.722 and rank is 90.

In 2013 this number reached 175 universities (104 State + 71 Vakif-Private) with 4,5 million students in total. However, Turkey is the 24th country with highest brain drain rates and the cost of brain drain is almost 2-2.5 billion dollars. TUBİTAK (The Scientific and Technological Council of Turkey) initiated a program in 2013 for returning the successful researchers.

A rank ordering of industries starting with the largest by value of annual output: textiles, food processing, autos, electronics, mining (coal, chromate, copper, boron), steel, petroleum, construction, lumber, paper. Turkey maintains roughly 50 Technology Development Zones (TDZs) of which 34 are operational and 16 have been approved and are currently under construction. , 276 Organized Industrial Zones (OIZs) and 20 Free Zones (FZs) in Turkey (19 are operational).

Turkey’s three largest cities claim a spot on the fastest-growing metropolitan economies list prepared by the Brookings Institution in 2011, namely İzmir, İstanbul. Ankara. Ankara  is the capital of Turkey and the country's second largest city, with a population of 4,338,620. Istanbul  is the largest city in Turkey, with a population of 14.1 million. The city forms one of the largest urban agglomerations in Europe[d], second largest in theMiddle East and the third-largest city in the world by population within city limits. With a PPP-adjusted gross domestic product of US$301.1 billion, Istanbul ranked 29th among the world's urban areas in 2011.